The history of the Triumf S-400 and the Patriot Antiballistic Missile system and the Air Defence system development demonstrates the difference of approaches in itself. As for the S-400, we see a system which is primarily intended for immovable objects protection against massive air attack echeloned for time, altitude and direction.
The Patriot AA missile system was developed as an air defence facility with enhanced capabilities of destruction of attacking short-range and midrange missiles in threatening sectors. Accordingly, these systems’ capabilities vary noticeably.
The Triumf S-400 AA missile system is intended for complex solution of air defence issues at the state level and in combination with other air defence means with which it may be combined and exchange information. It is an effective protection shield of entire regions. The S-400 effectiveness is especially remarkable in conditions when circular defense of an object or area is required. And the complex maintains rather high accuracy of target destruction providing anti-air warfare with effective use of the AA missile system ammunition load.
The Patriot complex, on the contrary, is effective as a system for which a certain air and missile direction or sector is closed. Relatively wide experience of the Patriot complexes’ use in some local conflicts of modern life demonstrates their effectiveness in defense at a known in advance and strictly determined sector. High fighting productivity of the AA missile system battery in a narrow sector provides multiple attacking missile defeat by which high possibility of attacking missile or enemy's air means destruction is achieved.
It is known that no less than two regiment sets of the Triumf S-400 AA missile system purchased by China cost more than $3 bln. Probable cost of the S-400 regiment set in the contract with India amounts to about $1 bln. Thus, protection of an area of approximately 500 by 250 km against attack of 200 aircrafts would cost about $1 bln for a country purchasing the S-400 system. Of course, this is a simplified analysis, but it is used here only to evaluate the finances required for establishing an effective air defence. The Patriot AA missile system cost, to carry out similar defensive mission, will amount to much larger sums – it is known that one Patriot AA missile system battery (with lower combat capability) cost is comparable to the cost of the S-400 AA missile system regiment set.
In other words, the Patriot AA missile system is suitable for antiballistic missile system against countries with short-range ballistic missiles in combination with local air defense system at certain directions, and it requires quite significant expenses. At the same time, the Triumf S-400 AA missile system provides an effective and economically reasonable air defense system for a country.
Triumf S-400 AA missile system
The Triumf S-400 AA missile system was developed in the "Almaz" Scientific and Production Association (now Main System Design Bureau "Almaz-Antey") of the "Almaz-Antey" Air Defence System concern (General Designer A. Lemansky). Works on developing a new AA missile system as part of AA missile system large-scale modernization of the S-300 family Air Defence System began in 1986. The S-400 AA missile system differs from the previous generations by its increasing capabilities in operating range, types of target and level of the interaction with the Air Defence Systems of the previous generations. In the S-400 AA missile system surface-to-air missiles of the EDB “Fakel” design are used. Series missile production for the S-400 is held by the "Almaz-Antey" Air Defence System concern.
The Triumf S-400 AA missile system was passed into service by the Resolution of the Russian Government on April 28, 2007. The first S-400 missile battalion was placed in operation in Elektrostal (Moscow Region) on August 6, 2007. The first field test of the S-400 AA missile system was successfully carried out in the Kapustin Yar test range in 2011.
Components of the Triumf S-400 AA missile system:
Control facilities of 30К6 AA missile system, including:
- 55K6 command and control post
- 91N6 radar facility
- mobile radar facility 96L6 all-altitude detector (optional)
98ZH6 firing complexes (6–8 units) including:
- multifunctional 92H6 illumination and guiding radar
- 5P85Т2 or 5P85SМ2 transporter-launcher (up to 6-12 units in a battalion/complex)
- 40V6М scaffold tower of an antenna post (optional)
30TS6 technical support complex
10YU6Т unified Теnor simulator complex
S-400 AA missile system missiles:
- 48N6, 48N6М, 48N6DМ long-range surface-to-air missiles
- 9М96 / 9М96М medium-range surface-to-air missile
- 40N6 ultra-long range surface-to-air missile
Operating principle of the Triumf S-400 AA missile system:
Сommand and control post of the 55К6 AA missile system interacts with the 91N6 ground-to-air radar which provides detection, route tracking and identification friend-or-foe of different types (ballistic, aerodynamic and hanging). According to the radar facility data, command and control post distributes targets between 98ZH6 firing complexes, provides them with appropriate target designations and implement interaction of firing complexes in condition of mass air attack weapon raid at various combat altitudes. The command and control post of the AA missile system is also able to receive additional en-route information about targets from the higher command and control post and, for example, from AEW aircrafts. Radar data integration received in various wave ranges is most expedient in conditions of intensive countermeasures. The Triumf S-400 AA missile system command and control post may provide work coordination of concurrently up to 8 firing missile complexes.
For different types of the S-400 AA missile system surface-to-air missiles different types of guidance is used: semi-active radar guidance with radio correction (48N6 type missiles), combination of semi-active and active radar guidance (40N6 missile), inertial flight with transition to active radar guidance (9М96 family missiles).
Specifications of the Triumf S-400 AA missile system:
Target detection range – 600 km
Number of concurrently followed target routes – 300
Number of concurrently fired targets – 80 (8 firing units of 10 targets each)
Number of concurrently guided missiles – 160
Coverage of the complex main radar (91N6):
- aerodynamic targets
– azimuth – 360 deg.
– elevation – 14 deg.
- ballistic targets
– azimuth – 60 deg.
– elevation – 75 deg.
Target destruction range:
- aerodynamic targets – 2–400 km
- ballistic targets – 7–60 km
Target destruction altitude – 5 – 30 000 m
Maximum target speed – 4800 m/s
Time of deployment of the AA missile system on the run – 5–10 min
The Triumf S-400 AA missile system operating states:
- Russia – put into service 27 regiments (54 battalions and 432 launchers) by the end of 2018
- China – the first regiment set of S-400 AA missile system (of two regiment sets) in 2018
- Belarus – put into service the regiment set of S-400 AA missile system (2 battalions) in 2016
- Algeria – reported about AA missile system supply in 2016
AA missile system deliverly is expected to the following countries:
- Turkey – in 2019
- India – in 2020 (and later)
The Triumf S-400 AA missile system is also based in Hmeimim Russian airbase in Syria, but it has not participated in combat operations.
The Patriot AA missile system
Development of the AA missile system for providing primarily antiballistic missile system for the USA field army began in 1963. Later, in 1964 works on developing a general SAM-D Air Defence System began. Until 1976, development and testing of individual components and of a future Air Defence system missiles had been carried out, and in May, 1976, the project was renamed into Patriot and the Raytheon company started its full scale development. In October, 1980, the first contract for MIM-104A Patriot production was signed. In 1981, operational service tests of the AA missile system began and in 1984 Patriot was finally passed into service for the USA military units.
PAC-3 Patriot, the latest version of the AA missile system, was tested in 1997 and accepted for the USA military arming in 2001. The AA missile system is characterized by increased capabilities of ballistic targets’ destruction as the complex has been modernized with consideration of the Patriot AA missile system use in Operation “Desert Storm” against Iraq.
Components of the PAC-3 Patriot AA missile system:
AN/MSQ-104 battery control post
Multifunctional AN/MPQ-65 radar station with enhanced capabilities for ballistic targets (previously – AN/MPQ-53)
М901 launchers (4/6/8 units)
MIM-104C/D/E surface-to-air missiles
AN/MJQ-20 supply sources
Complex communication facilities – AN/MCR-137 radio relay stations, antenna farms (maximum altitude 30.5 m)
Operational support equipment (missile-transporter loader, technical servicing post, tractor units)
Radio technical and tactical deception means (as part of battalions of 6 batteries)
Operating principle of the Patriot AA missile system:
Battery is a regular deployment unit of the Patriot AA missile system. Several AA missile system batteries may unite in battalions. Received information about potential targets from chain home AN/MSQ-104 battery control post coordinates work of multifunctional AN/MPQ-55 or AN/MPQ-65 battery radar. Radar functioning is automatic and radar control is carried out from battery control post by two operators. In the required sector the radar provides almost concurrent detection, indentification, and tracking of 90 to 125 air objects and flight control of all anti-aircraft missiles directed to a target. The Patriot complex may interact with AEW&C aircrafts of E-3 type. In this case, Patriot is in radar pause mode until the latest moment of receiving a target designation from the airborne AWACS.
Surface-to-air missile guidance on a target is carried out by combined guidance system: at the initial flight phase this is a program control, at the mid-phase it is radio command, at the final phase it is TVM (Track-via-missile) guidance when command guidance goes with the semi-active radar one.
Specifications of the Patriot AA missile system battery:
Target detection range – up to 180 km (up to 70–100 km for ballistic targets)
Number of concurrently followed target routes – 125
Number of concurrently fired targets – 8
Number of concurrently guided missiles – 6
Radar coverage of the complex (AN/MPQ-65):
- in the search mode
– azimuth – sector of 90 deg.
– elevation – 1–73 deg.
- when target-via-missile guiding
– azimuth – sector of 110 deg.
– elevation – 1–83 deg.
Target destruction range
- aerodynamic targets – 3–100 km
- ballistic targets – 3–20 km (MIM-104C/D/E missiles)
Target destruction altitude – 60 – 25 000 m
Maximum target speed – 1800 m/s
Time of deployment of the AA missile system on the run – 30 min
The Patriot AA missile system operating states:
- The USA – more than 480 launchers (2018)
- Germany – 12 batteries
- Greece – 6 AA missile system batteries (36 launchers)
- Jordan – 40 launchers
- Spain – 8 launchers
- Qatar – 10 AA missile system batteries
- Kuwait – 40 launchers
- The Netherlands – 32 launchers
- Japan – more than 200 launchers (licensed production)
- South Korea – in operational service
AA missile system delivery is expected to the following countries:
- Poland – 4 batteries in 2022 (16 launchers).
The Patriot AA missile system was used for the Antiballistic Missile system and Air Defence system during the Gulf War in 1991, in Iraq (2003), during the Civil War in Syria (2014–2018) and during the Civil War in Yemen by Saudi Arabia (2015–2017).
©New defence order. Strategy | 01 | 2019